Yes, in Italy you'll notice that the median barrier is generally almost on the edge of a driving lane.
Though full left shoulders are uncommon almost anywhere in Europe. Usually it's some 0.5 - 1.5 m (2-5 ft). Left shoulders seem to be a North American design standard. The Netherlands also mandated it with motorway design standards (if there are 4 or more lanes in one direction) but in most cases they've been turned into driving lanes or omitted due to cost.