Speaking of the movie Transformers, the scene where Bonecrusher and Optimus Prime do battle was filmed on the then unopened section of the 210 near San Bernardino. With so few freeways being built anymore it makes you wonder where future highway scenes may be shot.
Another very popular highway for the filming of movies, tv shows, and commercials is an old section of U.S. 99, north of the Los Angeles area that is four-lanes wide (I believe its the Piru Gorge section). I've seen this scene in 24 among other shows.
The 6th Street Bridge over the Los Angeles River is also very popular for the shooting of commercials. Mike Ballard toured me around downtown Los Angeles in 2005, showing me just about all of the bridges. Not soon after we took the 6th Street bridge, it appeared in a Dick's Sporting Goods commercial.
The 1971 movie Duel was filmed on a number of roads around the Santa Clarita area. Additionally there is a fantastic stretch of video shot along the 110 (then California 11) and along Interstate 5 northward through the Sylmar interchange. I watched this with Mike Ballard and he recognized every single highway shot in the movie!
So, feel free to share any movie highway scenes that you recognized and perhaps we can catalog them all someday.
[Changed color for readability. -S.]