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Oddities that defy conventional wisdom - POPULATION edition

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A spin-off of the thread for geographic oddities... what are some population related facts or stats that you find odd, crazy, or otherwise surprising?

Here's one I've never been able to wrap my head around: The District of Columbia (2020 pop. 689,545) is more populous than the state of Vermont (2020 pop. 643,077).

My home county, Monroe County, NY (2020 pop. 759,443) is also more populous than Vermont, which seems odd too because Rochester isn't even a very big metro area on a national level.

Colorado's most populous county is not in the Denver metro area. El Paso County (Colorado Springs) outranks the City and County of Denver by about 20,000.

The two most populous countries in the world (China & India) have about as many people as the next 20 in population (USA, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Brazil, Bangladesh, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Philippines, Ethiopia, Egypt, Vietnam, DRC, Iran, Turkey, Germany, France, UK, and Thailand).

There are over 20 metro areas just in the US with larger populations than the entire state of Wyoming. 

A local one for me that I never understood: Cattaraugus County, NY has 30,000 more people than neighboring Allegany County. Both counties are of a similar size and both are quite rural. The largest municipality in Cattaraugus County (Olean) is about 13,500 population-wise. For Allegany County the largest municipality (Wellsville) has a population of ~7,000. But that's 6,500 people. That doesn't explain the other 23,500 extra people in Cattaraugus County.

^ I suspect Wellsville is more of an outlier in its county than you think.  Allegany county is one of the most desolate parts of the entire state (especially if factoring out the Adirondacks).  Plus Olean is a bigger area than the population comparison to Wellsville suggests.  Olean actually has suburbs.

This map is interesting:

City limit population in general is weird and highly inconsistent, and sometimes defy conventional wisdom. Two of my favorite cases:

- Jacksonville is the largest in FL by city limit population, but most people would think that Miami, Tampa, and/or Orlando are larger (and they are for metro area population).
- San Jose is more populous than San Francisco, even though the latter is considered the "primary" city of the Bay Area.


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