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Cleveland has seen something of a renaissance over the past two decades. Steve Hanudel has a brief chronology of the improvements that have made Cleveland into what it is today, including the evolution of Cleveland's sports and entertainment franchises:

  • May 1984 - voters reject a tax proposal to build a domed stadium in the Gateway area (where Jacobs Field and Gund Arena now sit).
  • 1986 - Site rights for the building of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame awarded to Cleveland.
  • December 1986 - Richard Jacobs (a Northeastern Ohio mall developing mogul) and his brother buy the Cleveland Indians for $35 million. They enact their "Blueprint for Success" which provided goals to turn around a hapless franchise and lobby for a new ballpark. He hires Hank Peters as General Manager, who starts building the farm system by hiring the best scouts, making the best draft picks (i.e. Albert Belle, Manny Ramirez, Jim Thome, Charles Nagy), and trading top talent for multiple young farmhands (Joe Carter was traded to San Diego for Sandy Alomar, Carlos Baerga, and Chris James). Later, John Hart would be under Peters' wing and succeed him as General Manager in 1992. Mike Hargrove took over as manager during the 1991 season and held onto it through 1999.
  • Mid-1980s - the Cuyahoga County slowly acquires land in the Gateway area in anticipation that someday a new sports facility will be built there.
  • 1990 - Tower City Mall (officially called The Avenue at Tower City) opens in place of the old union rail station at Terminal Tower.
  • May 1990 - Voters in Cuyahoga County pass a sin tax (alcohol and tobacco) to finance the building of a new ballpark and arena at the Gateway area. The county immediately begins selling bonds and the site starts being cleared away. Cuyahoga County began selling bonds in December 1990. All of the bonds were sold within a day.
  • Early 1990s - The Flats area undergoes a facelift, turning an old industrial area to a popular nightspot. Both the west and east sides of the Flats are popular hangouts. One of the reasons why the Indians had a hard time keeping good players was that the city had no nightlife. Now, this would no longer be the case.
  • April 1994 - Jacobs Field (named after the Indians owner) opens. Cleveland beats the Seattle Mariners 4-3 in 11 innings in the first ever game. The new park attracted free agents such as Orel Hershiser, Dennis Martinez, and Eddie Murray. The Indians young talent would turn into winning record this year, but their playoff hopes were dashed in the season-ending strike. In 1995, they would go 100-44 and win the American League pennant for the first time since 1954 (Northeastern Ohioans were ecstatic over this). However, they would fall to the Atlanta Braves 4-2 in the World Series. Overall, the new park brought a resurgence of fans, eager to see the new ballpark and a good team (first time in a long time). This would obviously spark economic growth in the surrounding area. From June 12, 1995, to April 2001, Jacobs Field experienced a sell out streak of 455 consecutive games.
  • November 1994 - Gund Arena opens (named after the Cavs owner) and the Cavs abandon the fan favorite Richfield Coliseum (which was on Ohio 303 just off of Interstate 271). Gund Arena would never be as popular as Jacobs Field because the seating for the average fan was not very good and the ticket prices were high. Richfield Coliseum was torn down a few years ago and forest was replanted there to blend it back into Cuyahoga Valley National Park.
  • September 1995 - Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opens on the lakefront. Shortly thereafter, the Great Lakes Science Center opened next door, which has an Omnimax theater. The Science Center is mainly for kids, but adults definitely enjoy the Omnimax.
  • November 1995 - Art Modell announces that he will move the Browns to Baltimore, claiming that his tight finances left him with no choice. He never was very good with his money. Also, he wasn't too happy that the Indians got a new stadium, but the Browns didn't. Since Modell had always said he would never move the team, the city took him for granted, thus never bothered to give a new stadium deal. The voters would pass a sales tax to improve Cleveland Municipal Stadium, but it was too late. All in all, fans were just absolutely livid and furious over the announced move. People from all over Northeastern Ohio rallied to do whatever they could to convince the NFL not to allow Modell to move. The city had one last legal move in the bag. In 1973, Modell signed a 25-year pact with the city to use Cleveland Stadium. That meant he was obliged to fulfill the remaining terms of the contract through 1998. The city sued and a temporary restraining order was placed to prevent the move while a future legal battle ensued. Eventually, since the NFL didn't want the legal mess, they negotiated with the city and came up with a compromise - the city drops the lawsuit, lets the team move, and the NFL will guarantee a team (whether existing or expansion) in Cleveland by 1999 provided that the city gets rid of the old stadium and replaces it with a new one. Also, the city kept the Browns history and colors, leaving Modell with a "new" team in Baltimore that would have new name and colors. Therefore, the Browns became the first expansion team in any sport to have a history.
  • 1996-1999 - Cleveland Municipal Stadium is torn down and made into a fish reef in Lake Erie. The new stadium is built and named Cleveland Browns Stadium (by Al Lerner - he pretty much preserves many of the old Browns traditions).
  • September 1998 - Al Lerner (founder of MBNA, and former minority owner of the Browns) buys the new expansion Browns for $530 million. His main partner and future president is Carmen Policy (Youngstown native), the man behind building the 49ers' dynasty in the 1980s. There was a lot of controversy regarding Lerner because it was on his private plane that Modell signed the deal with the city of Baltimore to move the Browns. Lerner contended that he had nothing to do with the decision on the move, said that he disagreed with it, and no longer has any contact with Modell. The skepticism has worn off since Lerner has proven himself to be a hands off owner willing to open his wallet to build a good team.

U.S. 6 & 20 (Superior Avenue) east
U.S. 6-20-42 (Superior Avenue) eastbound cross the Veterans Memorial - Detroit Superior Bridge over the Cuyahoga River into downtown Cleveland. Superior Avenue intersects 3rd Street just ahead of Public Square. Photo taken 08/10/06.
The trio continue along Superior Avenue three blocks from Huron Road into Public Square. Public Square represents both the terminus of five major Cleveland routes: U.S. 42 from the southwest, U.S. 322 from the east, and U.S. 422 and Ohio 8 & 14 from the south. Rising along the southeast side of Public Square between Superior and Euclid Avenues is the B.P. America Building. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 6 and 20 part ways at West Public Square with U.S. 6 continuing east along Superior Avenue to East Public Square, U.S. 322's eastbound beginning. U.S. 6 & 322 follow Superior Avenue to 13th Street where U.S. 322 turns for its connection to Chester Avenue east.1 Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 422 & Ohio 8-14 all begin at the Superior Avenue intersection with Ontario Street within Public Square. The trio follow Ontario Street to Broadway and junction Interstates 90 and 77. Historically speaking, U.S. 21 also used to end in Public Square until a 1971 truncation to Pocatalico, West Virginia.1 The blank square to the top-left used to display a U.S. 21 shield. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 42's end shield resides at the U.S. 6 (Superior Avenue) intersection with East Public Square. U.S. 322 begins here on its three-state journey to Atlantic City, New Jersey. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Viewing the U.S. 6, 42, and 322 intersection with East Public Square from the Soldier Sailor Monument. Cleveland's U.S. Court House occupies the northeast corner of the signalized intersection. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 6 & 20 (Superior Avenue) west
Westbound U.S. 6 and U.S. 20 crossing the Detroit Superior Veterans Memorial Bridge over the Cuyahoga River. Opened in 1918, the double-deck bridge carries four lanes of traffic between downtown Cleveland and Ohio City. The lower deck carried street cars until 1954 and is currently unused.4 Photo taken 5/25/02.
Side profile of the Detroit Superior - Veterans Memorial Bridge from Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive. An abandoned railroad bridge remains locked in the upright position to the right. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue) east
U.S. 20 eastbound reassurance marker posted as the highway leaves Public Square along Euclid Avenue eastbound. U.S. 20 and parallel U.S. 322 (Chester Avenue) continue to East and Stokes Boulevard where they briefly merge. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Motorists bound for Cleveland's Interstate system, including Interstate 90 and Interstates 71 and 77 south, are advised to remain on U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue) east to East 9th Street south. 9th Street directly links the US highway with Interstate 90 west to Interstate 71 south and Interstate 77's southbound beginning. Photo taken 08/10/06.
The intersection of Euclid Avenue east with East 4th Street. 4th Street flows northbound only from Prospect Street one block to the south. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Approaching the East Ninth Street intersection of U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue) by foot. Ninth Street provides a direct link to Interstate 90 west at Interstate 77's northern terminus. Additionally freeway access is provided by East 14th Street south. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 422 (Ontario Street) east
U.S. 422 & Ohio 8-14 westbound reassurance assembly posted after their merge and subsequent interchange with Interstate 90. Ohio 8 and U.S. 422 share pavement from Shaker Heights into downtown Cleveland. Ohio 14 enters the overlap with Ohio 43 along Broadway from south Cleveland. Photo taken 5/25/02.
Hand painted signs posted along Ontario Street southbound as it leaves U.S. 6 & 42 (Superior Avenue) within Public Square. Ontario Street represents the southbound beginning of U.S. 422 and Ohio 8 & 14 and historically U.S. 21. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Approaching Huron Road on U.S. 422 east & Ohio 8-14 south (Ontario Street). Huron Road angles eastward from U.S. 6 & 20 (Superior Avenue) to Ontario Street and Prospect Avenue at Ninth Street. U.S. 422 & Ohio 8-14 continue onto Broadway to Jacobs Field and junction Interstate 90 west. Photos taken 08/10/06.
Occupying the eastern corner of the Ontario and Huron intersection is Quicken Loans Arena, a concert and sports arena that represents the home of the NBA Cleveland Cavaliers. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Eastbound U.S. 422, Eastbound Ohio 14, and Southbound Ohio 8 (Broadway) at Junction Interstate 90. All three routes are cosigned from near Public Square in downtown Cleveland to this point. This picture focuses on the Interstate 90 to Interstate 71 sign, but other signs point to U.S. 422, Ohio 8, Ohio 14, and Interstate 77 (Akron). U.S. 422 leads southeast to Youngstown and New Castle, Pennsylvania. Ohio 8 converts to a freeway on its southbound journey, then joins Interstate 77 in Akron. Ohio 14 connects to Interstate 480 and crosses Interstate 76. Interstate 77 leads to Akron and Canton and then continues south into West Virginia. Photo taken 5/25/02.
U.S. 422 (Ontario Street) west
Looking north at the Soldier Sailor Monument from U.S. 422 west & Ohio 8-14 north (Public Square South). The trio enter Public Square from Euclid Avenue west. Photo taken 08/10/06.
U.S. 422 west & Ohio 8-14 north (Ontario Street) enter Public Square and meet U.S. 6 & 20 (Superior Avenue). U.S. 422 and Ohio 8 & 14 end at Superior Avenue from the south; U.S. 322 also ends from the east as U.S. 42 south begins to the west. Traffic to U.S. 6 & 20 west continues along Ontario Street north to Public Square North to make the turn onto Superior Avenue west. Photos taken 08/10/06.
Peering northeast from the intersection of Ontario Street and Superior Avenue at Key Tower, Cleveland's tallest skyscraper, Old Stone Church, and Society for Savings Building. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Ohio 2 (Cleveland Memorial Shoreway)
This series of photos shows the Ohio 2 Bridge as it crosses the Cuyahoga River as seen from the Flats. Photos taken 5/25/02.
Two additional views of the Ohio 2 (Cleveland Memorial Shoreway Bridge) from the Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive area from the east banks of the Cuyahoga River. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Ohio 283
Ohio 283 begins at the intersection of East 55th Street and U.S. 6 (Superior Avenue) within the city of Cleveland. The state route travels 38 miles from Cleveland east to Painesville. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Approaching St. Clair Avenue on Ohio 283 (East 55th Street) east. Ohio 283 turns follows St. Clair Avenue between East 55th and 72nd Streets in Cleveland. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Ohio 283 leaves East 55th Street for St. Clair Avenue. East 55th Street continues as Cuyahoga County 382 to junction Interstate 90 at Marginal Road; Ohio 283 silently merges with Interstate 90 between East 72nd Street and Lake Shore Boulevard in northeast Cleveland. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport area (Ohio 237 north)
Exit signage from the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport onto the connector route. Cleveland Hopkins International Airport was the first municipally-owned airport in the country when it opened in 1925. It was later named after William R. Hopkins, who was the city manager of Cleveland that orchestrated the bonding and construction on the airport. The connector route leads to Snow Road, the Berea Freeway (Ohio 237), Interstate 71, and Interstate 480. This is one of the rare cases where red is used as the background color for an overhead road sign. Photo taken 05/25/02.
Just beyond the red signs is this sign at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport exit, approaching Junction Interstates 71 and 480. Photo taken 05/25/02.
Freeway entrance from the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport to Interstate 71 northbound, Interstate 480 eastbound, and Interstate 480 westbound (via Ohio 17 west and 237 north). Photo taken 05/25/02.
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport area (Ohio 237 south)
Ohio 237 follows Rocky River Drive through west Cleveland to Ohio 17 (Brookpark Road). South of Brookpark Road, the state route merges with the Berea Freeway on the approach to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. Ohio 237 meets Ohio 17 in the shadow of the Interstate 71, 480, and Berea Freeway interchange. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Joining Ohio 237 south from the Interstate 480 westbound ramp, traffic nears the two-lane ramp departure for Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. Ohio 237 follows the Berea Freeway southward to Eastland Road (Cuyahoga County 186). Photo taken 08/12/06.
Ohio 237 (Berea Freeway) southbound at the entrance to Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The access road loops into the terminal before turning to the Berea Freeway north of Snow Road (Cuyahoga County 195). Photo taken 08/12/06.
Turning onto the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport access road from Ohio 237 southbound. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Before entering the terminal, drivers encounter a signalized intersection with Park Road. Beyond the signal, the road partitions into an upper and lower roadway. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Downtown Cleveland
Also rising within Public Square is the Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, a structure opened in 1894. Listed within the monument are over 9,000 names of Cuyahoga County soldiers that fought in the Civil War.2 Photos taken 08/10/06.
A view of Terminal Tower, one of Cleveland's signature high rises. Sitting on the south side of Public Square, the 52-story building represents the second tallest skyscraper in the city. Terminal Tower opened in 1930 and was the tallest building outside of New York City until 1967.3 Photo taken 08/10/06.
Looking north along Ontario Street (U.S. 422 & Ohio 8-14) at High Street. Terminal and Key Towers rise in the background. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Huron Road is bisected by Prospect Avenue at its intersection with East Ninth Street. Prospect Avenue parallels U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue) from East 55th Street west to U.S. 6-20-42 (Superior Avenue). Huron Road continues west from Prospect to the Carl B. Stokes Federal Courthouse and U.S. 6-20-42's Veterans Memorial - Detroit Superior Bridge. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Looking southeast from U.S. 6 & 20 (Superior Avenue) at Huron Road. The 2002-built Carl B. Stokes Federal Courthouse building rises between Huron and Canal Roads along the Cuyahoga River. Photo taken 08/10/06.
East Fourth Street
East 4th Street southbound at Huron Road and the Quicken Loans Arena. A skywalk connects the concert/sports arena with a nearby parking garage. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Northward view from the sidewalk of East 4th Street at High Street. Photo taken 08/10/06.
East 4th Street northbound at Prospect Avenue; 4th Street becomes one-way northbound between Prospect and U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue). Photo taken 08/10/06.
Prospect Avenue eastbound at East 4th Street, just east of U.S. 422 & Ohio 8-14 (Ontario Street). Interests to Interstates 71, 77, and 90 are directed to the East Ninth Street interchange with Interstate 90 and Interstate 77's north end. Photo taken 05/25/02.
East Ninth Street
Northbound East Ninth Street at Jacobs Field. This photo was taken on East Ninth Street just beyond the off-ramp from the northern terminus of Interstate 77 into Cleveland. A direct ramp connects East Ninth Street south with Interstate 90 west to Interstate 71. Northbound drivers are directed onto Carnegie Avenue (pictured in the background) east to the East 14th Street on-ramp to Interstate 77 south and 90 west. Photo taken 5/25/02.
The intersection of U.S. 20 (Euclid Avenue) and East Ninth Street. Ninth Street links the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Erie Lakefront with Jacobs Field (home of the Cleveland Indians) and junction Interstates 77 and 90. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Northbound East 9th Street at Ohio 2 west. The large pyramid structure in the background is the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and Lake Erie lies just beyond the hall of fame. Ninth Street also provides access to the nearby Ohio 2 freeway and Cleveland Browns Stadium. Photo taken 5/25/02.
Cleveland Flats
This picture shows the Cleveland Flats, the former industrial area that has been converted into a nightclub and bar spot. The Flats are located along the east bank of the Cuyahoga River, which gained infamy in the 1970s for burning due to the industrial pollution (chemicals) floating in the water. Since this is a major shipping and port area, industry is immediately visible on the other side of the river from this location. The large bridge in the distance is the Main Avenue Bridge (also known as the Shoreway), which carries Ohio 2 across the Cuyahoga River. Photo taken 05/25/02.
St. Clair Avenue eastbound at West Ninth Street near the Cleveland Flats and Central Business District. Photo taken 05/25/02.
Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive
Looking west from the Robert Lockwood Jr. Bridge at the Cuyahoga River. Crossing in the background are the RTA Rapid Transit Bridge and the U.S. 6 & 20 Detroit Superior - Veterans Memorial Bridge. Rising in the foreground is the French Street railroad lift bridge. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive spans the Cuyahoga River near the Carl B. Stokes Federal Courthouse high-rise. A lift-bridge carries vehicular traffic between Columbus Road / Canal Road and Carter Road. Paralleling the car bridge is an abandoned railroad lift-bridge. Photos taken 08/10/06.
Views of the downtown Cleveland skyline to the northeast of the Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive bridge. From left to right are the Carl B. Stokes Federal Courthouse, Key Tower, Transit Tower, Tower City Center, Quicken Loans Arena, and Jacobs Field. Photos taken 08/10/06.
Industrial areas occupy the south banks of the Cuyahoga along Carter Road. Also in the background is an abandoned Carter Road lift-bridge and the Lorain Carnegie Hope Memorial Bridge (Ohio 10). Photo taken 08/10/06.
Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive northbound meets Columbus Road in the shadow of the RTA Rapid Transit bridge. Columbus Road leads southward to West 25th Street and Interstate 90; Center Street provides access from Columbus Road to Ohio 2 (Cleveland Memorial Shoreway). Photo taken 08/10/06.
Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive passes under the Detroit Superior - Veterans Memorial Bridge (U.S. 6 & 20) between Columbus Road and Superior Avenue. Photos taken 08/10/06.
A railroad line joins the RTA Rapid Transit line that passes over Robert Lockwood Jr. Drive into downtown. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Tower City Center
Views of Tower City Center from Canal Road. Tower City Center consists of a retail complex with over 100 shops, six restaurants, an amphitheater, and lodging. The complex lies along Huron Road above Canal Road, east of the Carl B. Stokes Federal Courthouse. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Southward view from Canal Road over the Cuyahoga River. The abandoned Eagle Avenue bridge is visible in the foreground followed by the Ohio 10 Lorain Carnegie Hope Memorial Bridge. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Another look at the French Street railroad lift bridge. The Columbus Road and RTA Rapid Transit Bridges rise in the background. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Wendy Park
Wendy Park occupies a portion of Whiskey Island, named for bootlegging that once occurred there, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River on Lake Erie. The park includes an abandoned coast guard station that juts out into Lake Erie along the west side of the river, a marina, a planned observation deck, and offers stunning views of the downtown skyline from just north of the Ohio 2 Cleveland Memorial Shoreway Bridge. A railroad lift bridge spans the river at the southeast edge of the park. Photos taken 08/12/06.
Cedar Glen Parkway
Cedar Glen Parkway (Cuyahoga County 23) westbound at Murray Hill Road, the city line between Cleveland Heights and Cleveland. Note Key Tower rising along the western horizon. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Cedar Glen Parkway descends below the Norfolk Southern Railroad as Carnegie Avenue into the city of Cleveland. Cedar Avenue branches off Carnegie Avenue beyond the railroad underpass. A jughandled intersection facilitates the movements to Cedar Avenue from Carnegie ahead of their respective intersections with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive. Photo taken 08/10/06.
East 55th Street
East 55th Street carries the designation of Cuyahoga County 382 northward from U.S. 422 & Ohio 8 (Kinsman Road) to Superior Avenue and again from St. Clair Avenue to Interstate 90 & Ohio 2. The north-south road carries four overall lanes along a commercialized stretch between U.S. 322 (Chester Avenue) and U.S. 6 (Superior Avenue). Pictured here is the intersection with Commerce Avenue west and Hough Avenue east. Photo taken 08/12/06.
North of U.S. 6 (Superior Avenue), East 55th Street carries the designation of Ohio 283 to St. Clair Avenue. Superior Avenue provides a main surface route between downtown Cleveland and East Cleveland. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Beyond the split with Ohio 283 at St. Clair Avenue, East 55th Street continues a short distance to a South Marginal Drive and the partial-cloverleaf interchange with Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 (Lakeland Freeway). South Marginal Road represents the eastbound side frontage road of the freeway. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Northbound East 55th Street at the Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 eastbound on-ramp to Bretnahl, northeast Cleveland, and Euclid. Photo taken 08/12/06.
North 55th Street ends at North Marginal Road, the westbound side frontage road of Interstate 90 & Ohio 2. Marginal Road travels west from 55th Street to Burke Lakefront Airport. Photo taken 08/12/06.
A loop ramp carries drivers onto Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 westbound from North Marginal Road / East 55th Street. North Marginal Road ends at a marina ahead while Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 continue a short distance to their partition at the next westbound interchange. Photo taken 08/12/06.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive meanders northward from Cleveland Heights through Rockefeller Park northwest to junction Interstate 90 & Ohio 2. The parkway nears junction U.S. 20 & 322 (Chester Avenue / Euclid Avenue) at University Circle (pictured here). Photo taken 08/10/06.
Northbound MLK Drive at Broad Avenue and a railroad overpass near Gordon Park. A partial-cloverleaf interchange joins the north end of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive with Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 beyond the railroad bridge. Photo taken 08/10/06.
A closer look at the Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 overhead for the eastbound on-ramp from Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive north. Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 east continue 8.5 miles to their split at Euclid. Photo taken 08/10/06.
Drivers destined for downtown Cleveland depart Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Drive north for Interstate 90 & Ohio 2 west. Beyond the on-ramp is Gordon Park and the westbound side frontage roads of Lake Shore Boulevard and North Marginal Road. Photo taken 08/10/06.

Sources:

  1. A U.S. Highway endpoint in Cleveland (Dale Sanderson)
  2. Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Cleveland) @ Wikipedia.org
  3. Terminal Tower @ Wikipedia.org
  4. Detroit-Superior Bridge @ Wikipedia.org

Page Updated February 11, 2008.

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